异己

日期:2019-10-03编辑作者:影视影评

The Other: Arrival as a Political Propaganda

感恩节前后上映的电影《降临》引起了香港影迷的不满。因为其中的一个电影海报把上海和维多利亚港拼贴在了一起,以至于电影的摄制组不得不郑重向香港观众道歉,承认这个失误。潜台词我们可想而知,“HK is not China”。

与《降临》有关的一系列事件,让我觉得有趣的是,这不是一个关于地缘政治的故事,这明显是一个有关人生哲学和自我检视的故事,然而关于它的讨论却不知不觉地围绕着关于“异己”和“我们”的争执。整部电影的审美意义完全被它的政治主张所代替。中国作为一个巨大的票仓,在所谓的大片中不得不多次被提及,然而在后自由市场亟不可待地囊括中国这个异己的同时,电影中的地缘政治叙述和关于中国的表达却在讲着完全不同的故事。

图片 1

降临海报之一,上海和维多利亚湾

想象一种人生,时间的概念不再线性。没有未来也没有过去,还未发生或即将发生的都是记忆,在潜意识的某个地方等待被唤醒。

媒体说《降临》是一部关于外星人的电影;我说它是一个关于思想时空旅行的故事。这不是科幻小说,因为并没有很多“科学”在其中。它提供的仅仅是一种思维方式。这部电影充满了关于他者的象征,而相对于他者的本体(我们)则是主流西方社会,美国,澳大利亚等等。即使这部电影尝试着呈现一种普世大同的图景 – 在外星人降临之时,人类应该团结在一起 – 但是剧本却是被“欧洲中心”(Euro-Centric) 的大脑写就。

如果有一个异己程度的光谱,外星人想必会落到最右边的位置,终极的他者,不可知也不可想。然而作者们从没停止尝试达到这些不可能:外星人长什么样子?它们如何思考?它们的宇宙飞船长什么样子?它们是友好还是富有攻击性?这些问题似乎是任何一个关于外星人的电影都必须要回答的话题。

利用地球上的异己来解读外星人是再常见不过的手法。通过这部电影来讨论地缘政治会很有趣。在降临里,中国被定义为光谱上第二个最大的异己。中国首先是西方意识形态的异己,在电影里被描绘成无法交流,富有攻击性也不友好。在外星进攻面前,中国是第一个拒绝参与国际合作国家,这多少与西方主流媒体的报道相符。注意跟随中国下线的国家,政治和文化的“异己”,俄罗斯与巴基斯坦。

电影里对于外星人的表达也象征着文化上的异己。 “八爪鱼”的墨汁使得外星人的文字从媒介上更为接近亚洲传统的书法,用墨水和笔触表达意思。我能想到的唯一的不同,就是中国,日本和韩国都不会用“圆”作为构成句子的基本单元。而圆此时也扣了电影的概念 – 非线性的时间观。中国的传统时间观很长时间以来都将时间看成是一个循环,很少有“进步”的概念,王朝更迭,类似的一个替代另一个。《降临》把一种历史观代入了个人经历。记忆,因此成为时间漫游的媒介,女主角在逐渐掌握外星人语言的同时,越来越频繁地出现过去和未来记忆的闪回,呈现一个佛教冥想的状态。

可能每一部关于外星人的电影事实上都是关于人类社会本身在文化上和政治上如何分化。从启蒙运动至今,在战争,交易和政治的影响下,整个人类社会对于时间和空间的认识逐渐协调一致。如今更甚于从前,我们有了网络和新自由市场,整个世界越来越无法容忍“异己”。《降临》不自觉地诠释了全球化景观下的进退两难,是否有真的地域留存?还是世界上每个民族国家,所谓的地域主义,只能是“我们”的变调而已?

Imagine living a life, in which the sense of time would no longer be linear. There would be no sense of past or future; everything that happened or will happen is memory, waiting at somewhere in the subconscious to be aroused.

The media says Arrival is a story about aliens; I say it is a story about the time travel of mind. It is not science fiction, as there is not much of “science” in it, what it produced is only a point of view. The film is filled with signs of Other, with Us being mainstream Western society, the United States, Australia..etc. Even though the film tried to envision a universal scenario, Homo sapiens should be united when the aliens are here, the story has in fact created by a Euro-centric mind.

If there were a spectrum of the degree of ”Otherness”, the aliens definitely would be fallen into the rightmost position, the ultimate other, the unknown and unthinkable. Yet, writers never stopped to attempt the impossible, what will the aliens be like? How will they think? What do they look like? In what vessel they travel? Are they aggressive or friendly? These are the questions every film or fiction on aliens ought to answer.

It is commonplace to use the “Other” of modernity on our planet to interpret the aliens. It is interesting to discuss the geopolitics through the film. In Arrival, China would be the next most alien other on the spectrum. China is, first and foremost, the political other to the western modernity, as it is pictured impossible to communicate, aggressive and unfriendly. China would be the first one to disconnect itself from the international collaboration, which is more or less aligned with the reality. Pay attention to the nations that followed China in the film. Russian and Pakistan, represent two major political and cultural “Other” than the west.

The representation of the aliens is the signs of the cultural other. The alien writing is very similar to the Asian writing or even paintings. The fact that it is the ink of “octopus” makes it even more similar, as Asian traditional calligraphy used brushes and ink. The only difference I could envision is that the Chinese, Japanese or Korea characters are not composed around a circle core. The central concept of the film, the perception of time, is also an Asian concept. The traditional Chinese culture has long been perceive time as cycle, there is indeed little sense of progress in terms of the organization of the political system and even technology in the later half of the traditional Chinese Feudal Empire. What is different is that the film made time into an individual experience, instead of the historical narrative. The most beautiful thing about that is the film thus turned memory into an experience of time travel, the heroine is reminded of her future and past more and more frequently as she started to know better of the alien language. It is almost presenting a state of Buddhism meditation.

Maybe every film on aliens is in fact about the human society, about the ways in which the society is divided culturally and politically. From the Enlightenment and today, our society’s perception of time and space is coordinated into one, through War, trade or politics. Now more than ever, with the Internet and the neoliberal market, the world is less and less tolerant with the “Other”. The film represented a deep conundrum of globalization, that is, is there real locality left, or just different episodes of “Us”?

本文由国民彩票app平台发布于影视影评,转载请注明出处:异己

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